Rootcrops for Food, Income and Feed

Benefits of Rootcrops

  • Can grow over a wide range of soil and climatic conditions.
  • The leaves can also be used as foods/feeds (except for arrowroot).
  • Easy to grow, good staple and easy to prepare as food.
  • Planting material does not compete as food source (except for ubi/tugui).
  • Long-harvest duration. Produce can stay in the ground long without much decline in quality.
  • Availability of simple processing technologies provided for increase crop value and decreased risk of crop perishability of production surplus.

Brief Description of Site Requirements and Production Practice of Five Major Root Crops

1. CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta), Kamoteng-kahoy, kalibre, balinghoy

  • Soil Requirement – Sandy to clay good internal drainage
  • Light Requirement – Full sunlight, yield reduced by shading
  • Water Requirement – At least 1000 mm/season with less later in the season
  • Land Preparation – Conventional, 1 to 2 plowing and harrowing
  • Planting Materials – At least 8 mo old, 20-30 cm long with 5 nodes or more and free from pests
  • Time for Planting – Onset of the rainy season
  • Planting Method – Singly, vertically buds up, 113 below the ground on the ridge
  • Spacing – 60-100 cm between rows and between hills
  • Weed Control – Combination of handweeding and cultivation during the first two months of growth. Hill-up 2 months after planting.
  • Harvesting – Depends on need/situation but optimum time is about 10 most Harvest only the amount that can be used/disposed within 3 days.
  • Shelf-life – Can last for one week if basal part of root is not injured
  • Cropping Systems – Should be rotated with other crops like legumes/cereals. Can also be intercropped.
  • Special Features – Cut the plant about knee high under storm signal #2 and plants more than 1 m in height. Old plants can be rejuvenated by pruning and allowing regrowth. These also serve as live fence for corn and upland rice (tribal practice).

2. SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas), Kamoteng-baging, kamote

  • Soil Requirement – Sandy to clay with good infernal drainage
  • Light Requirement – Full sunlight, yield reduced by shading
  • Water Requirement – At least 400 mm/season with less later in the season
  • Land Preparation – Conventional, 1 to 2 plowing and harrowing
  • Planting Materials – Terminal vine cutting 25-35 cm long with at least 5 nodes and free from pests
  • Time for Planting – Onset and/or towards end of rainy season
  • Planting Method – Singly, vertically, 1/2 buried on ridge during rainy season and in furrow towards dry season
  • Spacing – 75-100 cm between rows and 20-30 cm between hills
  • Weed Control – Combination of handweeding and cultivation during the first month of growth. Hill-up one month after planting.
  • Harvesting – Depends on need/situation but optimum time is about a month. Avoid injuring the roots for longer shelf-life.
  • Shelf-life – Can last for two weeks to four months depending on variety
  • Cropping Systems – Should be rotated with other crops like legumes/cereals. Not advisable for intercropping, very competitive
  • Special Features – Can be pruned of shoot tips (10 cm) during first month of growth for vegetable vine lifting for those with lateral roots can increase yield of main roots

3. TARO/YAUTIA (Colocasia esculenta/Xanthosoma sagittifolium), Gabi, gabing San Fernando, Takudo

  • Soil Requirement – Sandy to clay with good internal drainage and with high organic matter
  • Light Requirement – Can tolerate shading up to 25 percent
  • Water Requirement – At least 1500 mm/season uniformly distributed
  • Land Preparation – Conventional, 1 to 2 plowing and harrowing
  • Planting Materials – Upper 1-2 cm corm plus lower 20-25 cm petiole weighing 100-200 9 and free from pests; sucker for yautia
  • Time for Planting – Onset of rainy season
  • Planting Method – Singly in furrows about 10 cm deep
  • Spacing – 75 cm between rows and 50 cm between hills
  • Weed Control – Combination of handweeding and cultivation during the first two months of growth. Hil-up 2 months after planting.
  • Harvesting – Depends on the need/situation but the optimum time is about 9 months for Colocasia (true gabi) and one year for Xanthosoma. Avoid injuring corms for longer shelf life.
  • Shelf-life – Can last for two weeks with part of petiole attached
  • Cropping Systems – Should be rotated with other crops like legumes/cereals. Can be planted with other crops like trees/annual crops
  • Special Features – Removal of suckers/rhkomes for colocasia increased yield of mother plants mulching contribute to better weed control

4. ARROWROOT (Maranta arundinacea), Uraro

  • Soil Requirement – Sandy to clay with good internal drainage
  • Light Requirement – 50 percent shading to full sunlight
  • Water Requirement – At least 1500 mm/season uniformly distributed
  • Land Preparation – Conventional, 1 to 2 plowing and harrowing
  • Planting Materials – Suckers and rootbits about 10-20 9
  • Time for Planting – Onset of rainy season
  • Planting Method – Singly, vertically on the furrow about 10 cm deep
  • Spacing – 75 cm between rows and 30-50 cm between hills
  • Weed Control – Combination of handweeding and cultivation during the first two months of growth. Hill-up 2 months after planting.
  • Harvesting – Depends on the need/situation but optimum time is about 10 months. Avoid injuring rhizomes for longer shelf-life.
  • Shelf-life – Can be stored for one month
  • Cropping Systems – Should be rotated with other crops like legumes/cereals and can be planted under trees
  • Special Features – No pests observed, not eaten even by goats, flour is first class, good for children and convalescent

5. GREATER YAW/LESSER YAM (Dioscorea alata/D. esculenta), Ubi/Tugui

  • Soil Requirement – Sandy to clay with good internal drainage and with high organic matter content
  • Light Requirement – Can tolerate shading up to 25 percent
  • Water Requirement – At least 1000 mm/season with less later in the season
  • Land Preparation – Conventional, 1 to 2 plowing and harrowing
  • Planting Materials – Whole or sliced presprouted tubers 100-250 9 for ubi and 100-150 9 for tugui (whole only) free from pests
  • Time for Planting – Onset of rainy season and when dormancy is broken
  • Planting Method – Singly on ridges about 10-15 cm deep
  • Spacing – 100 cm between rows and 50-75 cm between hills
  • Weed Control – Combination of handweeding and cultivation during the first two months of growth. Hill-up 2-3 months after planting.
  • Harvesting – Depends on the need/situation but the optimum time is about 7 months when leaves start falling. For tugui, basal leaves appear yellowish when mature. Avoid injuring tubers for longer shelf-life.
  • Shelf-life – From 3-5 months depending on variety
  • Cropping Systems – Same as for gabi
  • Special Features – Needs trellis for good production. Horizontal trellis adviseable for areas frequented by typhoons; mulching also good for weed control.

Uses of Food Crops as Feeds for Animals

Crop Swine Poultry Ducks Goat Carabao/Cattle
Cassava and
Sweet Potato
Raw leaves, dried ground leaves,
raw/cooked roots, dried ground roots
Dried ground leaves,
dried ground root
Dried root chips, raw
roots, dried ground leaves
Raw leaves, raw roots,
dried root chips
Raw leaves, raw roots,
dried root chips
Gabi/Taro/
Takudo
Sliced and cooked leaves and corms Dried ground corms Dried ground corms
Ubi/Tugui/Yam Cooked tubers, dried ground tubers Dried ground tubers Dried tuber chips Dried tuber chips,
raw leaves
Dried tuber chips
Arrowroot Cooked rhizomes Dried ground rhizomes Dried ground rhizomes Dried rhizome chips Dried rhizome chips

source: sleekfreak.ath.cx

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