Quail bronchitis is one of the most common diseases of quails. According to Merck Veterinary Manual (MerckVet), quail bronchitis is naturally occurring, highly contagious and a fatal respiratory disease. It affects quails of different ages that are maintained on the same premises.
The disease is caused by adenovirus that instantly affects the respiratory tract of the birds. It also affects the liver and intestine of the birds. Clinical signs include respiratory distress, coughing and sneezing. Loose, watery droppings are common in some acutely affected older birds.
The disease is often self-limiting. There is no specific treatment and experimental vaccines have proven ineffective. However, increasing the brooder temperature by 1.5 to 3°C, preventing “piling up” and avoiding contact between older and younger birds and other avian species are of value, as are strict isolation and sanitation can be an effective solution. Immunity is long lasting, possibly for life, and recovered birds can be retained for breeders. New birds should not be introduced to premises without a so-day quarantine.
This infection is also identified by MerckVet as common among quails. This affects the heart, liver, muscle and lungs. Mortality can be as high as 78% particularly in bobwhite quails. This infection is very perilous as it can cause sudden death without clinical signs. However, experts tell that if birds show anemia, lameness, poor growth and weakness, it should be given treatment such as an-timalarial drugs or medicines containing chloroquine (5 milligrams per kilogram) and buparvaquone (2.5 milligrams per kilogram).
Ulcerative enteritis is an acute, highly contagious disease of quails caused by the bacterium Clostridium colinum and characterized by the ulcers of the intestine. It can cause 100% mortality in quails. According to the Poultry Site, transmission of diseases is from feces of sick and carrier birds through flies. Birds affected by this disease show listlessness, retracted neck, drooping wings, partially closed eyes, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, anemia and watery white feces. The Poultry Site recommends treatment of Streptomycin (44 gm/100 liters of water), Bacitratin, Tetracyclines, penicillin (50 to 100 ppm in feed), amoxicillin and vitamins. Response to treatment should be seen within 48 to 96 hours.
Quails are also affected by salmonella, lice, cholera and blackheads which can easily be treated.
The MSU states that many strains of the disease causing bacteria have been isolated and some strains have shown high resistance to the more beneficial drugs we use. Good management practices will help reduce the severity of these outbreaks. The institution therefore recommends the following practices:
- Keep water troughs clean or use nipple waterers.
- Do not let visitors into the bird producing areas.
- Clean and disinfect all equipment before taking it near the birds.
- Do not bring any new birds onto the premises. If you need to increase flock size, hatch chicks from purchased eggs or eggs you produce.
- Addition of 6-10 Ib salt to each 100 square feet of litter or growing area has been reported to reduce ulcerative enteritis outbreaks.
- Maintain a good insect pest and rodent control program to reduce disease spread.
- Wear clean clothes and disinfect footwear before entering quail rearing facilities.
MSU emphasizes that most disease outbreaks are spread by the bird caretaker, not by the birds. Precautions you take to prevent the disease from entering the premises will be much more rewarding than trying to “treat” yourself out of a disease problem.
A great Source of Extra Income
Though investments may not be as big compared to chickens, it can nevertheless be a good source of extra money. From egg to becoming an egg producer, quails can generate money within two months as it will only take 57 days to fully grow and produce eggs again. Broiler quails can be sold 35 days after it has been hatched. Sixteen days after it has hatched, quails can again lay eggs within 41 days.
If you decide to raise 100 quails with a 70% egg-producing capacity, it is guaranteed to produce 70 eggs in one day. Eggs are now sold at Po.75 each. A rule of thumb that still applies with regard to profitability of a quail venture is that for every thousand of quail population, the net income per day should be 100 pesos. So if you have 10,000 heads you have a daily net income of 1,000 pesos. This covers all the costs including depreciation.
Quails can be profitable if well-taken care of. We strongly recommends consulting an expert first before engaging in the business to ensure a more productive and profitable quail raising.
Composition of Quail Egg (Whole, Raw)
- Water – 74%
- Protein – 13%
- Fat – 11%
- Carbohydrate – 1%
- Total ash – 1%
- Calorific Value – 649kJ/100g liquied
Author: Gemma C. Delmo, Marid Digest 2007