Plant Species with Essential Oil for Perfume Production Part 3

Pandan­ Mabango, Fragrant Screw­pine

Common name: pandan­ mabango (Tag.), fragrant screw­pine
Scientific Name: Pandanus fascicularis Lam


This pandan tree is slender, the stem being one decimeter or 0.1 m approximately equivalent to 3.94 inches. It has several to many branches, and is 5 to 8 m high with few short proper roots. The leaves are 1.5 to 1.75 m long, 2.5 to 2.75 cm wide, with a narrowly acuminate apex, and spines with scantly serrate margins. The peduncle is re­curved, about 2 cm long (0.2 m), with a few foliaceous bracts toward the distal end.

Propagation – Pandan is propagated by suckers.

Management – Suckers with 5 to 7 leaves are removed from the mother plant. Prune the long leaves before planting. Planting should be done during the rainy season in prepared holes spaced at 3 m x 5 m and about 4 inches deep or less, depending on the size of the suckers. Maintenance such as weeding and watering are necessary.

Economic Uses

  • Leaves – ­ cooked with rice to impart the smell of new rice
  • Essential Oil – ­ used as purgative and cure for leprosy ­ the perfumed oil called Kevda oil in India is extracted from the floral bracts as stimulant antispasmodic. It is also used for headaches and rheumatism remedy.
  • Roots – ­ are used for diuretics and tonics.


Common name: champaka
Scientific Name: Michelia champaka Linn.


A small tree reaching to a height of 5 to 12 m and a diameter of 30 to 50 cm. Bark is grey and smooth. Leaves ovate­lanceolate, gradually narrowing upward to a long, pointed apex. Flowers are yellowish brown, fragrant, 4 to 5 cm in length, hanging in bunch. Seeds 2 to 5, angular, blackish, covered with thin, pink­orange pulp.

Propagation – Champaka is propagated by seeds.


Seeds of champaka can be sown in seedbeds or directly to 4€ x 6€ polyethylene bags with ordinary garden soil. Seedlings are transplanted in polyethylene bags when they have 2 pairs of leaves and are outplanted when they reach the height of 25 to 30 cm and the basal portion becomes darker.

Economic Uses

The oil that is extracted from the flowers consist largely of lineal, isoeugenol, benzoic acid, benzal alcohol, benzaldehyde and p­cresol methyl. The flowers are partly utilized for oil which is used for perfume and medicines.


Common name: ilang­-ilang
Scientific Name: Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hooker F. and Thomas


Ilang­-ilang is a medium­-sized tree attaining a total height of 30 to 35 m with a diameter at breast height up to 80 cm. Oftentimes, it has a crooked trunk, with a smooth and ashy bark and horizontal branches. The leaves are oblong to ovate, 12 to 20 cm long with pubescent veins and midrib.

Flowers occur in small clusters, with light yellow color and very fragrant. Ilang­-ilang flowers regularly. It starts flowering at the age of 1 ½ to 2 years. The number of flowers per tree ranges from 200 to 1,000. Trees aged 4 to 10 years old yield 4 to 5 kg of flowers. Similarly, the fruits are in clusters, up to 20 fruits in each stalk. The fruits turn black when ripe.


Ilang­-ilang is propagated by seeds. Recent experiment, however, showed that it could be propagated by cuttings with the use of growth hormones.


Plant the hardened seedlings at the onset of rainy season. Use compost in covering the planting holes. Weed the plantation regularly. Water the plants as often as necessary to maintain available soil moisture. Apply fertilizer of urea for every hectare in the second year after planting. For succeeding years, apply another urea and complete fertilizer for every hectare at least once a year.

Economic Uses

The flowers are harvested for oil extraction when they attain maturity as indicated by change of color from green to yellow. Collection should be done early in the morning because heat dissipates the delicate perfume. Oil is extracted by steam distillation or solvent extraction. It requires 300 to 500 kilos of flowers to produce one kilo of oil.

The wood can be used for firewood, wooden clogs and net floaters. The bast fibers can be made into coarse rope. Its flowers can be made into leis and garlands.

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