Meat Processing Guide: Antioxidants and Synergists


Antioxidants – used only where loss of flavor or freshness may become a problem. It slow down the oxidative deterioration of fat


  • BHT – butylated hydroxyl toluene
  • BHA – butylated hydroxyl anisole
  • TBHQ – tertiary butyl hydroquinone
  • Propyl gallate

Synergists – used in conjunction with the antioxidants to increase the effectiveness of each oxidant.


  • citric acid
  • monolsopropyl citrate
  • monoglyceride citrate

Classification of processed meats

1. Non-comminuted

  • includes hams, bacons, corned beef commonly referred to as smoked meats
  • they are prepared from whole, intact cuts of meat
  • usually are cured, seasoned, heat processed and smoked
  • often they are molded or formed

2. Comminuted

  • products use small meat pieces, chunks, chips or slices. Most comminuted products are classed as sausages.


Sausages – are comminuted [ground seasoned meats, stuffed/unstuffed into casing; may be smoked, cured, fermented and heated.

Classification of sausages:

  1. fresh saugages – are made from fresh meats, which are neither cured, smoked, fermented nor cooked. It must be kept under refrigeration after processing and must be cooked before serving e.g. hamburger, fresh pork sausages
  2. uncooked smoked sausages – fresh sausages which are cured and smoked at a temperature of 32 degrees centigrade [90 degrees foreign height] for three [3] hours.
  3. cooked, smoked sausages – type of sausages which are subjected to light smoking and cooked at an internal temperature of at least 61 degrees centigrade [142 degrees foreign height]. e.g. frankfurters, wieners
  4. cooked meat specialties – sausages which are formulated and processed same as frankfurters however, these are cooked in pans or molders and the degree of chopping is coarser than frankfurts. E.g. meat loaf
  5. fermented dry sausages – type of sausage which requires the action of microorganisms for the production of lactic acid. Moisture content is withdrawn from the initial moisture content of 75% to 26-40%. E.g. salami, summer sausages
  6. semi-dry sausages – type of sausages which are smoked and dried for a short time at high temperature. Final moisture content s higher than the dry sausages [40-50% vs. 26-40%]. E.g. chorizo, pepperoni

Meat processing ingredients can be bought at:

Ultima Entrepinoy Forum Center
Nutrition Foundation of the Philippines Bldg.
#107 E. Rodriguez Sr. Ave., Quezon City
Tel: 411-1349; 742-0826; 742-7866
Email: [email protected]



  1. By rosalie b. salagan


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