- Keep buildings, run-ways, pens and equipment clean always. Sanitize and disinfect them regularly.
- Quarantine or isolate animals recently brought from other sources.
- When buying breeder stocks for replacement, make certain that the animals have been immunized against prevalent diseases in the area such as hog cholera and swine plague.
- Always seek the advice/services of the nearest veterinarian and/or government technician or the office of the Bureau of Animal Industry.
Common Diseases and Parasites
Hog Cholera or Swine Fever:
- Pigs get contaminated through direct contact or by eating uncooked slops or kitchen scraps containing the virus.
- Fever, loss of appetite
- Increased thirst, chills and sometimes vomiting.
- Constipation, later followed by diarrhea
- Inflammation of the eye (conjunctivitis) thick discharges causing eyelids to stick together
- Reddish, purple discoloration of skin at ears, abdomen, inner thighs or tail
- Death ensues 4- 7 days after onset of signs
- Prolonged duration of illness (chronic form) terminates in pneumonia or hemorrhagic enteritis, or both
Prevention and Control:
- Vaccinate all pigs against the disease using a reliable vaccine, weanling at one week before or after weaning-; sows and boars, every six months.
- Dispose all pigs known to have the disease. Disinfect contaminated pens and premises properly.
- Avoid giving uncooked slops or kitchen scraps to pigs which are common sources of infection.
Signs: Loss of appetite, Fever, Rough coat and weakness, Watery feces flecked with mucus or blood
Prevention and Treatment:
- Antibiotics in feed for two weeks when disease is prevalent
- Quarantine new arrivals for a week and feed high level antibiotics
Pneumonia symptoms are associated with the following conditions:
- Swine Plague – usually a complication of swine flu
- Enzootic Pneumonia – impaired growth and feed conversion rates for long time with frequent
attacks of persistent dry cough.
- Swine Flu – exposure to stress, particularly cold and inclement weather; poor drafty
environment also favors chiling of susceptible pigs.
- Athropic Rhinitis – lateral distortion of nose, excessive sneezing of even week-old piglets.
- Eye and nasal discharge
- Difficult breathing (abdominal nature) .
- Muscular cramps .Sneezing
- Improve management and emphasize dry, clean, draft-free and well-ventilated housing.
- Avoid overcrowding, as most respiratory disease are transmitted by inhalation of infected air particles.
- Provide plenty of clean, fresh water, nutritious feed and vitamin-antibiotic feed supplement.
- There is no specific treatment for swine flu, swine plague and enzootic pneumonia. However, antibiotics like tetracyclines and sulfas may be of benefit. Respiratory stimulants and antiseptics as well as good nursing care speed up recovery.
- For Atrophic Rhinitis, the following therapeutic approach is recommended:
- Sulfamethazine in feeds.
- Sulfathiazole in water -1/3 to 1/2 gram per gallon.
Brucellosis Of Pigs Or Contagious Abortion
Cause: Brucella suis
- Abortion when sow is at second or third month of pregnancy.
- Irregular heat cycles, presence of repeat breeders,
- Still births
- Aborted fetus
- Small litters or weak piglets
- Mayor may not have metritis
- Localization of agent in joint causes in coordination, paralysis and lameness.
- Not necessarily fatal unless complicated by metritis
- High incidence of the disease necessitates replacement of entire herd and restocking after 6 -8 months.
- Apply strict hygienic measures on farm.
- Purchase breeding animals from certified negative herds.
- As there is no satisfactory vaccine or treatment, the practical approach is to test and dispose of
Scouring (Diarrhea) Or Gastroenteritis Complex
Cause: Irritation of the small intestine by parasites, bacteria, or by sudden change of diet. It is caused by various carriers or conditions:
- Dietary Scours – brought about by sudden change in feed or irregular feeding.
- Colibacillosis – from contaminated water supply, change in feed which upsets balance of bacteria in intestines, and stress factors like weaning, vaccination, transfer to other pens.
- TGE – due to introduction of new pigs, some may be carriers of the virus; mixing animals of different ages.
- Balantidiosis – usually brought about by contaminated drinking water and/or contaminated forage such as kangkong.
- Dysentery -associated with any form stress like transport or change of feed, feeding of contaminated kitchen slops.
- Gastro-intestinal Parasites -overcrowding of animals, lack of deworming program.
- Dehydration is the biggest problem and can cause death in most cases; it must be immediately corrected by giving fluids.
Treatment: Effective treatment and control depend on correct diagnosis or identification of cause. This is quite difficult because of the complicated nature of the disease, so it is best to consult a veterinarian for confirmation of diagnosis. Emphasize preventive aspects of management, as treatment is both difficult and expensive.
MMA (Mastitis -Metritis -Agalactia Syndrome)
Cause: Mastitis and agalactia (absence or lack of milk) arise from non- specific ,or unknown causes. It may be due to infection or stresses like excitement, difficult farrowing, digestive trouble of dietary origin and other , environmental factors. Metritis is a non-specific inflammation of the uterus and is associated with retained placenta, abortion
or difficult delivery (dystocia).
- Temperature above or below normal
- Discharge of reddish brown mucus mixed with shreds of placental membranes that attract flies.
- Tenderness and warmth in mammary tissue.
- Check health status of breeding sows. Replace those with history of breeding troubles.
- Proper diet, exercise, and provision of clean, disinfected far- rowing pens reduce incidence of farrowing troubles.
- Mild, light laxative feed for sow is recommended after farrowing.
- Eliminate stresses and possible causes of udder injuries.
- Antibiotic infusion into udder; apply hot compress and mild antiseptic externally.
- Administer pituit’4TY extract containing oxytoxin.
- Treat metritis locally by inserting pessaries or antibiotics in- side uterus and systematically by injection of sulfa drugs and other antibiotics.
Cause: Large round worm (Ascaris lumbricoides)
Signs: Depends largely on the number of worms present in animals, kind of management and nutrition of pigs. Pigs manifest slow growth rate, thinness, thick growth of hair which is usually dull and lacking normal luster. Sometimes, pigsvomit worms or expel worms in the feces.
Treatment: Oral administration of dewormer through feed or drinking water. Piperazine dewormers are usually effective.
Cause: Direct contact with affected animal or contaminated objects and farm equipment.
Signs: Intense itchiness, forcing animal to rub vigorously affected portion of the body against wall of pen. At first, affected skin is reddened but, after sometime, skin becomes thickened, scaly, and wrinkled.
Treatment: Spray animal with insecticidal preparations indicated for mange. Repeated spraying is necessary to attain satisfaction results. Likewise, spray animal’s quarters particularly floors and walls to kill mites hiding in cracks and crevices.