Hog raising is a very popular enterprise in the Philippines such that there is a proliferation of backyard producers, which dominates the swine industry and a healthy viable commercial sector.
Despite the crises facing the swine industry, still many people are venturing in this enterprise. This manual hopes to bring appropriate technology to the interested farmers and would-be swine producers in order that they may realize profitable production and improve their quality of life.
Swine is believed to be the earliest animal to be domesticated, proven by paintings and carvings of pigs that date back to 25,000 years have been found. Swine is one of agriculture’s best sources of income and a very good source of protein.
The Philippine swine industry is dominated by backyard hog farming, which claims 76% of total swine stocks while 24% come from commercial farms. The swine industry contributed to 80% of the total Philippine livestock output in 2004.
Outbreaks in animal disease and the like caused a slight decline in hog production in 2004, producing only 1,722.44 metric tons as compared to 1,733.09 metric tons in 2003. But as swine prices continued to rise, the swine industry’s value continuously increased from Php 74.73 billion in 1999 to 118.70 billion pesos in 2004. Retail prices steadily rose from Php 108.47 in 1999 to Php 135.66 in 2004 and live weight output significantly increased from 65.06 (1999) to 81.62 (2004), indicating increased interest in the improvement of swine farming. Thus giving hog farmers the incentive to increase production and more farmers continue to join the enterprise.
It is however imperative that swine-producers consider significant factors and techniques before venturing into hog farming to maximize profit on production.
Swine Breeds in the Philippines
Several imported breeds of meat-type swine are presently available in the Philippine market. It is important to consider farming experience, finance and purpose before choosing the best breed suitable to raise in local conditions.
Berkshires are characterized by their black color and six white points and four white feet. Berkshires are medium-sized and are generally smooth. This breed is also longer in proportion in depth compared to other breeds. Berkshires have ears that stand erect and noses that are short.
The Berkshire breed is one of the oldest improved breeds of swine. Berkshires originated in the county of Berkshire in South Central England. This breed has short black skin and is more resilient to disease than white breeds, but may not be as prolific as the other breeds. Berkshires are popular for their meatiness and good adaptability to rugged conditions.
The red hog breed Duroc is a popular breed for its exceptional growth rate as they are able to grow faster on less feed. This Duroc’s rapid growth rate is unsurpassed by any other breed. This breed originated in the 1800s in the Northeastern United States and are characterized by their large size and noted for their hardiness and prolificacy.
Duroc pigs have a good constitution and are resistant to stress, with ears that are 2/3 erect and 1/3 hanging. Duroc sows are also good mothers.
The Duroc breed’s skeletal structure stands up in all kinds of environment, and it also has a natural leanness. These factors contribute to the Duroc’s ability for rapid growth and product that is agreeable to both packer and consumer. As such, the Duroc will inevitably continue to be a vital element in pork production.
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For more information, contact:
National Federation of Hog Farmers (NFHF)
4/F Room 401 R & G Tirol Building
831 EDSA corner Eugenio Lopez Street
Brgy. South Triangle, Quezon City
Phone: (02) 924-2317, Fax: (02) 924-2259
E-mail: [email protected]
author: Carmela Abaygar, Marid Digest