Culture and Management
Land Preparation. Cut the brushes and weeds and bum them. Plow and harrow the field two or three times. Prepare furrows prior to planting.
Methods of Propagation
- Suckers – shoots arise from the point of leaf stem below or above the ground.
- Crown – shoots arise on top of the fruit.
- Slips – shoots borne on peduncle below the fruit.
- Main Stem – stem of whole plant itself.
1. For Suckers and Slips
- a. Single rows – Plants can be planted 8-10 cm deep, 25cm 30 cm apart, in a row and 80-100 cm between rows. This gives 33,000 – 50,000 plants per hectare.
- b. Double row – Plants are set 25-3o cm in a row or between plants and 50 cm between double rows. This gives 44,000-53,000 plants/ha.
- c. Wide bed – Plants are set 40 – 50 cm apart. A bed usually constitutes 6-8 rows. Skip 7th to 9th rows to serve as path between 2 beds. This gives approximately 20,000 plants per hectare.
2. Rate – one sucker, slip, or crown, per hill
3. Planting Time – March and August
Weeding and Cultivation
Weeding is done by pulling out weeds by hand, hoe, or other instruments. Spray weeds with herbicide such as Karmex 80 WP and applied at 6.4 kilograms per ha. Use weeds as much to conserve soil moisture and add organic matter.
Pest and Disease Control
1. Mealy bug, Dysmicoccus brevipes Cokerell, is commonly located on the tender parts of the leaves, generally in the crevices of the whorls. Mealy bugs are disseminated by ants. Spray plants with registered pesticide.
2. Root grub, Leucopholis irrorata Chevrolet, is white when newly hatched and turns light brown with age. The adult are grayish black beetles known as “Salagubang” in Taga-log. It feeds on the roots of the plant causing, it to wither, when heavily infested, the plant dies. Spray plants with registered pesticide.
Off-Season Fruit Production
Off-season flowering and fruiting can be induced by applying calcium carbide (carburo) and ethephon. Calcium carbide may be applied in solution or granular form. Dissolve 2kg carbide in kerosene can, water and apply about 30 milliliters or 3 tablespoons in the heart of a growing plant at least 12 months old, preferably late in the afternoon.
Apply granular form of calcium carbide, about the size of a bean of shap, by placing this in the heart of the growing plant in the morning. Fruits are obtained 5 months after application.
Harvesting of pineapple is done when
- The eyes of Red Spanish become reddish brown yellow or light orange;
- The eyes of Smooth cayenne turn light yellow or golden yellow;
Yield per hectare depends on the distance of planting; hence the total number of plants per hectare. Each plant bears only one fruit.
Grade the pineapples properly in order to obtain a good price. Separate unmarketable and damaged fruits from the good ones.
Pack graded pineapples in suitable transporting materials to minimize injury during transit Wooden crates with appropriate cushion and capacity could be used for this purpose. For shorter trips, sacks will do.
No matter what transport/packaging material is used, fruits sliould be acequateiy protected from mechanical injury during transit Do not expose fruits to me sun during transit to preserve their quality and appearance.
Methods of Fiber Extraction
1. Decorticating – Machine extraction is done with theuse of a decorating machine.
2. Hand Scraping – This is the most common method used especially in Aklan, the center of the Philippine piria fiber industry. The “liniwan” (fine fiber) is separated from the “bastos” (coarse fiber). This method is crude and tedious and uses tools such as porcelain plate, coconut shell, plastic comb and sea shells.
Uses of Pineapple Fiber
- Each strand of hand scraped pina fiber is knotted one by one by hand to form a continuous filament for hand weaving into pina cloth.
- The pina cloth is an excellent material for making “Barong Tagalog”, the Philippine National costume.
- Other items that can be made out of pina cloth include the following: gowns, kimonos, panuelos, table linens, handkerchiefs, doilies, bags, table napkins, and other useful materials.
- Pina fiber is also an excellent material for handmade, papermaking.
The major markets for decorticated fiber are Japan and Taiwan, while the hand scraped ones are consumed locally by hand loom weavers mostly based in the province of Aklan.
For more information, contact:
Fiber Industry Development Authority (FIDA)
Asiatrust Bank Annex Bldg.
1424 Quezon Ave., Quezon City
Phone: (02) 373-7494, 494-41-26
source: FIDA, photo from canjordana.com, bicol.da.gov.ph, icajapan.org