Drying and storage
Airdry the seeds for 5 – 7 days. They can be stored with or without fungicide dressing to attain 7% – 8% moisture content at 7°C – 8°C. Seeds stored at room temperature remain viable only for 2 – 3 months.
Soak seeds in tap water overnight prior to sowing.
Bury the pointed end of the seed and the opposite end in level with the soil surface. To protect the seeds from bird or rodent attacks, cover the seedbeds with mesh wire mounted on a wooden frame.
Use sandy loam soil as germination medium. The soil is made firm by thoroughly watering before sowing. Then, sow the seeds 6 cm – 8 cm apart within rows and 8 cm – 10 cm between rows. Germination period usually takes 12 – 15 days.
The following are the steps in the nursery operation:
- Prepare raised germination beds about 1 m wide of desired length. Remove stones and undercomposed organic matter. Pulverize and level the clods.
- Sow seeds 6 cm – 8 cm along rows and 8 cm – 10 cm between rows to attain production of seedlings with large stems and more fibrous roots. Cover lightly with soil, preferably compost litter.
- After sowing, water the beds using sprinkler. Do this twice a day to make sure that seeds and soil are sufficiently wet. Shading is not necessary except for newly planted seeds.
- Regulate the time of sowing in order to produce stumps not larger than 5.08 cm or 2 in in diameter at the time of planting. Germination usually takes place two to four weeks.
- Outplant woody seedlings that have attained pencil thickness.
The following are recommended for establishment and maintenance of yemane
- Plant 7 – 10 month-old stumps and seedlings from May to July or during the rainy season in dug holes spaced at 2 m x 3 m.
- Wrap the root system of the seedlings with wet sack, banana leaves or sheath (i.e. a hundred seedlings per bundle) to avoid dissipation when transporting.
- Ring weed outplanted seedlings to liberate them from shrubs, grasses, sedges and other ground cover vegetation. This is necessary for the first year only, after which the dense canopy of gmelina suppresses the weeds. The most appropriate time to weed the plantation is during the early and latter part of the rainy season. Avoid weeding during dry months.
- About 30 days after outplanting, apply complete fertilizer (14-14-14 or 15-15-15) at the rate of 100 kg/ha to improve growth and survival. Trench about 5 cm deep and 5 cm away from the base of the seedlings. Place fertilizer in this trench and cover with soil.
- Remove overlapping branches, bent and low stems in cleaning and tending operations during the first and second year.
- The second fertilizer application is usually done during the first weeding/cleaning operation. This is carried out at the latter part of the rainy season or about 90 days after outplanting.
a. Sooty mold
Symptom: Leaves, petioles, twigs, and branches are partially or completely covered with black mycelial colonies of fungus. The leaves become grayish black and later turn to dirty brown and defoliate.
Causal pathogen: Meiola clerodendricola
Control measure: If damage is serious, control first the insect using organic phosphorus chemicals. Improvement of environmental conditions through thinning or pruning are also effective measures in suppressing sooty mold disease.
b. Brown leaf spot
Symptom: Production of water-soaked and necrotic lesions at the base of the stem of infected seedlings causing wilting and toppling of seedlings over the seedbeds.
Causal pathogen: Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, Sclerotium spp., Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., and Pythopthora spp.
- Sterilize soil for 7 – 8 hrs at 180oC with intermittent spraying of water before putting in seedboxes.
- Disinfect soil before seeding. Drench soil with diluted emulsion of Thiram or Captan (3 – 6 li/sq m of soil). Soil burning is also recommended.
- Seed treatment. Dress the seeds with Thiram fungicide (0.13% wt of seeds) or with Delsene MX (2.5 li/kg of seeds).
- Seedlings should be kept in well-drained soil.
- Soak seedlings in fungicide solution for 5 hrs (Benlate at 2.5 g/li of water) before transplanting to plastic pots.
Compiled by Levi V. Florido, Apolinaria T. Cornejo, Concepcion M. Palaypayon, Jose M. Batalon, photo from www.jabonjawa.com