Health Management Practices
- Have pens cleaned daily and washed at least three times a week. Disinfect at least twice a month. Accumulated feces and urine provide a good breeding ground for disease-causing microorganisms. Provide a lagoon or pit to store waste for at least a month before spreading to the pasture. Use as fertilizer for orchards or vegetable garden.
- Train personnel to observe sanitary procedures. Provide separate pens for diseased animals. Limit visitors coming into the farm, including other animals. Quarantine newly arrive stock for at least a month before mixing with the main breeding stock.
- Aside from pneumonia, parasites rank second in causing heavy mortality. From experience, tapeworms are the most debilitating worm problem in all ages of goats, Protozoa-like coccidia and amoeba are also common problems especially in young kids.
- Have your goats checked regularly for specific worm load and deworm regularly depending on worm load and seasonal occurrences. Know what kind of internal parasite is affecting your herd before attempting to use a deworming product, or else it will be a waste of money; and effort.
3. External Parasites
- Lice and ticks are common problems. When these are observed, apply acaricide or chemicals against lice and ticks, in powder or dust form. This can be done by mixing the powder-form chemicals with 7 to 10 parts of starch or flour and apply as dusting powder. Refrain from using the liquid or spray form.
Common Infectious Diseases of Goats
1. Bacterial Pneumonia
- Mode of transmission: Direct contact from infected or contaminated udder, navel infection, genital or intra
uterine infection of dam, contaminated environment
- Symptoms: Fever, inability to suckle, nasal discharge, coughing and respiratory distress. Gradual emaciation may terminate as pneumonia-enteritis combination. Death common.
- Prevention: Proper nursing in clean, dry environment necessary. Early cases respond to antibiotic treatment.
2. Infectious Arthritis
- Mode of Transmission Direct, through mouth, skin, open wounds or via umbilicus
- Symptoms: Swollen knees, lameness, pain if pressure is applied on affected joint. Fever may be present. Joints involved are hock, knee, elbow and stifle. Animal prefers recumbency, appetite affected with gradual deterioration.
- Prevention / Control: Minimize infection by treating wounds (castration and navel) dressing, hygiene management especially in areas of confinement. Treatment includes wide spectrum anti-biotic and sulfa drugs.
- Mode of Transmission: Direct or indirect .
- Symptoms: Hot, painful and swollen udder. May become red due to inflammation later changing to dark reddish-blue indicating necrosis of udder tissue. Milk may be bloodstained, may contain flakes or clots. Fever, loss of appetite, depression and dehydration; gait or movement of doe is affected.
- Treatment: Intramammary infusion of antibiotics. Early and repeated treatment needed to prevent complications such as gangrene and toxemia.
- Prevention: Proper treatment of injured teats with antiseptics; disinfecting udders for milking and proper milking technique. Monitor by surveillance to detect early cases for immediate isolation and treatment.
4. Sore MouthlORF/Contagious Ecthyma
- Mode of transmission: Contaminated equipment, fences, manure, bedding and feeds, over crowding, contaminated vehicles and workers. Infected suckling Iambs, contaminated teats and udders of dams
- Symptoms: Characterized by papules, pustules, vesicles and scabs on the skin of the face, genitalia and feet, mucous of the mouth, rumen, nostrils eyelids, gums, tongue, palate and middle ear. Occurs commonly to less than one-year-old sheep/ goat, and feedlot lambs 3- 7 months of age.
- Prevention/Treatment: Vaccinate feedlot lambs after entering the fattening facilities. Vaccinate suckling lambs 1-3 days of age .
- Mode of Transmission: Direct and indirect contact with naturally infected animals, carriers, implements and other infected materials . Blister fluid, saliva and other bodily discharges highly infective.
- Symptoms: Fever vesicles, erosion in between hooves, coronary band (junction between skin and hoot), teats and udders, oral mucosa and tongue. Raw ulceration follows, rupture of vesicles, stingy or foamy salivation, smocking of the lips, difficulty in feed ingestion; staggering gait and lameness. Abortion in pregnant animals.
- Prevention: Immediate notification of the authorities. Designation of quarantine areas and restricted movement of animals; disinfecting areas with virucidal agents (commercial disinfectant or lye caustic soda) . Animal should be kept on dry ground and lesions treated with mild antiseptic (5% formalin). Mass immunization and effective restriction in movement of animals and carriers is necessary.
- Mode of Transmission: Ingestion of contaminated feed and water. Aborted fetus, fatal membrane, placenta, urine and uterine discharge are main sources of infection. Infected males may transfer disease through natural/ artificial breeding
- Symptoms: Infertility, abortion, retained placenta, persistent vaginal discharge. In males, swollen and painful testicles with subsequent infertility/sterility
- Prevention: Blood tests and removal of infected animals. Vaccination may be tried. Antibiotic medication is found to be impractical
7. Hemorrhagic Septicemia
- Mode of Transmission: Ingestion or inhalation of infective agent. Maybe normally present in the nasopharyngeal area but predisposition causes flare-up of infection
- Symptoms: High fever, loss of appetite. Respiratory distress, salivation, nasal discharges, swelling of the throat and brisket congestion of mucous membrane, diarrhea becoming bloody later.
- Prevention: Prophylactic vaccination. Removal of predisposition when possible. Early treatment with parenteral antibiotics and sulfa drugs
- Mode of Transmission: Direct ingestion of infected material, biting flies. Indirect, through contact with materials and carriers
- Symptoms: Sudden onset of fever, depression and loss of appetite. Swelling of chest, head, belly and legs, bloody diarrhea Death common in early stages. Colic, abortion in pregnant animals, blood stained discharges, convulsions
- Prevention: Dead animals should be cremated or buried deeply under a layer of lime. Antibiotic treatment is only effective in early and less acute cases
- Mode of Transmission: Infection initiated by trauma of the body and oral mucosa. Cases in larger ruminants maybe source of infection in the area.
- Symptoms: Sudden deaths in acute cases. Less acute: depression, fever, rapid respiration and suspended ruminatism. Typically, not painful swelling in thigh and leg muscles. Crackling sensation of palpation of swelling due to gas in tissues. Lameness in affected limb
- Prevention: Vaccination. Cremation of carcasses. Early isolation and treatment with massive doses of antibiotics
- Mode of Transmission: Direct infection due to introduction of organism in wounds. Castration, old ulcerating wounds, dehorning complications. Not contagious to other animals
- Symptoms: Early stages characterized by rigidity and stiffness of muscles, stilthy gait. Late stages: with tetanic convulsions, prolapse of third eyelid, stiff tail, head and neck thrown back; hyperexcitability. Bloat and other nervous signs.
- Prevention: Treat wound with oxidizing antiseptic (hydrogenperoxide ) until completely healed; use clean instrument in castration and dehorning
11. Parasitic Gastroenteritis
- Mode of transmission: Commonly through direct infection with parasitic larval stages through herbage, less common through skin penetration and intrauterine infection in some species
- Symptoms: Poor body condition, anemia, diarrhea, potbelly and weakness
- Prevention: Regular deforming with effective anthelmintics (tetramisole, parbendazole, thiabendazole, pyrantel, etc.). Pasture rotation and improve feeding practices
12. Parasitic Pneumonia
- Mode of Transmission: Infection with the parasite in the larval stage through herbage
- Symptoms: As in parasitic gastroenteritis for general signs. Specific symptoms includes persistent husky, coughing, respiratory distress
- Prevention: Regular deworming with tetramisole, albendazole or oxfendazole. General prevention as parasitic gastroenteritis
13. Tapeworm Infection
- Mode of Transmission: Through ingestion of plant mites that are intermediate host
- Symptoms: Same as other internal parasitism, passage of tapeworm segment in the feces
- Prevention: Regular deworming (albendazole, niclosanide, lead arsenate, and oxfendazole )
14. Liverfluke Disease
- 14a Etiology: Four Species of trematodes:
- a. Fasciola hepatica
- b. Fasciola gigantica
- c. Facioloides magna
- d. Dicrocoelium dendriticum
- 14b Clinical Signs: Post Mortem Lesions
- a. Affected animals isolate from the flock
- b. Decline the feeds
- c. Distended abdomen is painful upon manipulation
- d. Lose weight and become unthrifty, anaemic and edematous in the lips and intermandibular tissues
- e. Ascites may form
- f. The wool looses its flexibility and tensile strength
- Clinical Forms: Acute Form – traumatic invasion of liver paranchyma by immature flukes. Chronic Form – billiary fibrosis resulting from prolonged residence of adult flukes
- Symptoms: Characterized by unthriftiness, loss ofweight, anemia and edema
- Prevention/Treatment: Control of fluke infestations. Prevent the animals from grazing on infected pastures. Use flukicide / anthelmintics in treatment
15. Lice Infestation
- Mode of Transmission: Direct or indirect contact with infected animals through environment or facilities
- Symptoms: Constant scratching and rubbing to relieve itching and irritation. Scurfy coat ( dandruff) and encrustation of exudate with scabby deposit Loss of hair. Raw skin and bruises in severe infestations. Animals becomes unthrifty, poor thriving, weak and anemic
- Prevention: Use insecticide (Asuntol, Ciodrin, Diazinon, Neguvon, Supona, Nankor, etc.) In dust or solution form repeat treatment in 10-14 days to kill nymphs that hatch out. Also spray pens and litter. Isolate treated from untreated animals
- Mode of Transmission: Direct and indirect contact with infected animals
- Symntoms: Marked itchiness and irritation with animals constantly rubbing or licking affected areas, maybe patchy or generalized. Skin becomes hairless, thickened or scabby
- Prevention: Periodic examination to detect cases. Regular spraying with effective acaricides such as. Malathion, Trichlorfon, Fenthion, Diazinon, Crotoxyphos or Coumaphos. Interval of treatment should be 7 -10 days with 2-3 applications to destroy mites that have hatched after each treatment
- a. Green Legume Bloat -results from eating fresh copped green grasses
- b. Hay Legume bloat -results from feeding whole, chopped, ground or pellet grasses which is conducive to bloat
- c. Free-gas Bloat -result from the inability of the animal to eructate usually associated with systemic disease or due to foreign bodies and abscesses, inflammatory swelling, enlarged thoracic nodes, and also dysfunction such as atrophy of the muscles that interfere with escape of gases and favor its accumulation
- d. Grain Concentrate Bloat -results from feeding bloat producing concentrate such as corn, soybean meal and barley
- Symptoms: Retention of gas in the rumen, characterized by increased intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic pressure
caused by interactions of plants, animals and microbial factors. Distention of the abdomen. Animals become uneasy. May alternate between standing and reclining positions. Breathing becomes difficult, rapid and shallow. Ruminal movement is prominent
- Prevention/Treatment: Good management and medicinal regiment in feeding Avoid grinding the hay and other
components too finely Stomach tube should be passed in the dorsal part of the rumen to remove any free gas. Administer 0.5 to 1.0 liters of mineral oil or vegetable oil
18. Acute Ingestion of Grain Overload
- Mode of Transmission: Non-contagious
- Symptoms: Signs appear from 10-36 hours after dietary changes. Depression, loss of appetite, and abdominal distention causing pain and discomfort. Diarrhea develops. Rapid respiration and pulse, incoordination, weakness, coma and death
- Prevention: Avoid sudden dietary changes. Treatment is generally unsatisfactory. Early case~ may respond to highantibiotic levels given orally to reduce population of acid-forming bacteria (Acidosis). Indigestion maybe
- treated with anti-acids like baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), magnesium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide given orally in warm water (1 gm/kg body weight) to neutralize rumen acidity. Systematic acidosis requires intravenous injection of acid neutralized like 5% sodium bicarbonate repeatedly given.