FAQ’s on Mango Production

Which microclimate in Mindanao is suited for mango production?

Mindanao is ideal for mango production primarily because many areas there are spared from typhoons, which is the single most important constraint in year-round mango production. The Mindanao area can be classified as the best producing area in the country in terms of yield but in terms of quality, the best areas are those produced during dry season.

Does soil have an effect on quality of the fruit (example, taste)?

Soil has an effect on the quality of the fruit. In order to ensure acceptable fruit quality, there must be proper balance of the essential nutrients. Correct fertilization practices, should therefore, be followed.

Is it possible to grow mango trees in colder or elevated areas?

There is a possibility of growing mango trees in elevated areas but the limit is 600 meters above sea level.

How are we going to fertilize mango trees?

Dig holes or a circular canal 20 cm to 2 m away from the trunk depending on the age of the plant. One to three years old, 20-45 cm; 4-15 years old, 1-2 meters; >15 years, 2 meters. Apply the fertilizer on the holes or the canals and cover with soil.

When is the best time to fertilize mango seedlings?

The best time to apply fertilizer is when there is sufficient moisture in the soil. In areas with distinct dry seasons, application is done at the onset and before the end of the rainy season. In areas where soil is almost always moist or irrigation facilities are available, fertilizers are applied at flower induction shortly after harvest, and the period between harvesting and the next flower induction.

What is the safe level of NPK Application for 10-30 year old mango trees?

The safe level of NPK needed for 10-30 year old trees depends on several factors. The NPK level of the soil has to be tested in order to determine how much is lacking and thus be able to compute for the required amount.

Is it alright to use urea in combination with NPK?

Yes. NPK supplies nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium while urea supplies more nitrogen. So it really depends on the nitrogen requirement of the plant.

What can you say about double or triple grafting?

This method of maintaining plants can have advantages or disadvantages depending on the particular crop or situation. Mango with double or triple root stock would become more vigorous, resulting to overcrowding of trees within a short period of time. However, one advantage of double or triple grafting of mango is better anchorage of the tree to the soil.

I am a neophyte farmer. I recently bought a 6,250 sq. m. lot in Guagua, Pampanga with dimensions of 25 m wide by 250 m long. It has 18 fruit-bearing mango trees planted on a straight line with a 10 m distance between trees. What crops would you recommend to be planted along with these mango trees? And how does one go about doing it?

You can choose among 10 crops to plant in between mango trees, but it would depend on the age of the trees. If the trees are newly planted and are still small, plant short season crops like vegetables. Crops that require higher light intensity can also be planted while the mango trees are still small. However, if the trees are already fully grown, choose crops that can tolerate reduced amounts of sunlight such as ‘gabi’. The best thing to do is to determine the extent of sunlight exposure and choose your crop accordingly. Prepare soil the usual way – by shallow plowing and harrowing.

We recently inherited some properties in Batangas City, and would like to venture into mango production and raise other crops while the mangoes are not producing yet. We are thinking of planting calamansi in between mango trees. Where can I get materials of mangoes and calamansi?

That is a very good idea. Calamansi can be grown productively in between mango trees especially while they are still young, because competition is very minimal and there is enough sunlight for the intercrops. You can grow calamansi during the first ten years, as it thrives under high light intensity. After this period though, the calamansi will have to be replaced with crops that are tolerant to shade such as ‘gabi’. Reliable sources of planting materials of mango and calamansi include the Bureau of Plant Industry and UP Los Baños.

Is there a need to bag mango fruits? Method of bagging?

Bagging of fruits is not a requirement in mango production, but it is an effective way of protecting mango fruits from mechanical damage and damages due to pests such as the fruit fly.

Before you start bagging, you need the following materials: bamboo ladder, stapler and wire, newspaper print, coconut midrib, and rope. Using stapler, form the bag 15 x 22 cm made out of newspaper print. You can start bagging when the fruits are about the size of a chicken’s egg, or 55 to 60 days after flower induction. Here are the steps in bagging:

  1. For small trees, simply set the ladder on the ground and climb to reach each fruit.
  2. For big and tall trees, bring the ladder up the tree and secure it on a strong branch by trying it. The position of the ladder should allow the bagger to reach each fruit and bag as many fruits as possible.
  3. Insert one fruit per bag then close the bag using coconut midrib.

How many times do I spray? What causes fruit fall? And when do I need to bag?

The number of pesticide spraying required to effectively protect flowers and fruits from insect pests and diseases varies with the prevailing weather conditions during the flowering and fruiting period. Regular pruning and bagging of fruits may also reduce the required number of pesticide applications. In general, early flower induction would require six sprays of fungicides and three sprays of insecticides since prevailing rainfall and relative humidity during this time is favorable to the development of fungal diseases. On the other hand, more sprays (6 times) of insecticides are needed during the late induction period since insects are expected to become a major problem during this period. These sprays of fungicides may be sufficient during late induction period.

Falling of fruits could be caused by several factors such as lack of nutrients, water, insect pest and disease damage, strong wind, hormonal imbalance, and many more.

What is the recommended distance of planting?

The usual recommended distance of planting for mango trees ranges from 10 to 14 meters and therefore, using this recommendation, you would need a maximum of 100 trees to a hectare.

Please give us information on high density planting of mango orchards!

High density planting has not yet been thoroughly studied for ‘Carabao’ mango in the Philippines. It could have the potential of generating more income during the early productive period of the orchard, but then overcrowding of canopies could become a serious problem very soon since ‘Carabao’ mango is a fast growing variety. Corporate farms who have tried high density planting, have not been successful with the system.

What are the advantages of using seedlings or grafted materials in the field?

An important advantage in using grafted material is that the waiting period from planting to fruiting is shorter than if seedlings are used. With grafted materials, you can expect the plants to bear fruit on the third or fourth year as opposed to a minimum of seven years if seedlings are used. Another advantage would be having more trees per hectare, since grafted trees
tend to remain smaller compared to seedling trees.

Where can we source good and reliable planting materials?

The best sources of planting materials include government agencies like the Bureau of Plant Industry and universities and colleges like UP Los Baños. Nurseries accredited by BPI could also supply recommended planting materials.

What is more advantageous – a small or a big mango tree?

On a management point of view, a small tree is easier to manage than a bigger one. With small trees, one advantage is that you would be able to accommodate more trees within a specific area. It is also much easier to apply the cultural management practices with small trees. If the trees are to be climbed, accident risks are also minimized.

What are we going to do with fallen mango trees due to typhoon?

The mango trees will eventually recover after sometime without the need of propping since the roots will eventually resume its normal growth and hold the tree on its own. However, the trees will not regain its normal posture. But this should not worry you as it has been observed that fallen trees, which have recovered, are more responsive to flower induction. Moreover, these trees will be more resistant against wind damage aside from the additional bonus of ease in harvesting the fruits. As to pruning operations, prune only the inner smaller branches of the tree. However, pruning needs will differ slightly as the tree grow older.

Have we tried to improve other local varieties like ‘Pico’?

Nothing has been done to improve this variety. The ‘Pico’ has a very limited market and therefore has not been given as much research attention as the ‘Carabao’.

If you need to contact mango buyers, traders/exporters, growers, experts, processors, input suppliers, or institutions, you’ve come to the right section! The following directories are now available.

For more information, email [email protected] or visit Mango Information Network

source: Dr. Leon O. Namuco, Mango Information Network

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