Prevention of this disease may be done by strict sanitation practices, thorough cleaning of feeders and waterers, supplying clean fresh drinking water at ail times, immediate isolation of infected animals, and administration of polyvalent vaccine.
This disease may be treated with a high level antibiotic and sulfa drug therapy.
Samonellosis is a bacterial disease affecting ducklings. This is caused by Salmonella anatum and S. typhimurium. This disease is characterized by diarrhea and dehydration, ruffled feathers, dry sunken eyes, leg swelling and sudden collapse.
Salmonellosis is transmitted through direct contact and ingestion of contaminated feed and water.
Salmonellosis may be prevented by strict sanitation practices, thorough and frequent cleaning and disinfection of feeders and waterers, and maintaining litter and ground to be clean and dry.
This disease may be treated by high level anti-biotic or sulfa-drug therapy.
Viral diseases of ducks have not been confirmed to be present locally, and any incidence thereof may not have been documented properly. The following are signs and symptoms of these diseases to serve as a guide to recognize them. Any suspected outbreak should be reported immediately to the Bureau of Aimal Industry, Department of Agriculture.
Duck plague affects ducks of all ages. This disease is characterized by sudden onset, high mortality and extreme weakness.
Duck plague is caused by a herpes virus usually acquired by direct contact or ingestion of contaminated water and feed.
Clinical manifestations of duck plague include loss of appetite, watery diarrhea, soiled vent, eye and nasal discharges, labored breathing, decreased egg production and a high mortality rate of 40 to 80 percent. Hemorrhages throughout the body are more visible in the visceral organs.
Duck plague may be controlled by administering vaccines, maintaining strict sanitation practices, isolating sick ducks immediately, and providing high level antibiotic vitamin-mineral medication.
Viral hepatitis is an acute and highly contagious viral disease that affect only ducklings age four weeks and under. This disease is characterized by short incubation period, sudden onset, and a high mortality rate of up to 90%. This disease is transmitted through direct contact or ingestion of contaminated feed or water.
Clinical manifestations of this disease include lethargy, spasmodic paddling of feet, sudden death, and a high mortality rate. Viral hepatitis may be controlled by maintaining a strict sanitation practice and administering vaccines to healthy flock.
Marketing, Costs and Return on Investment (ROI)
The duck meat and egg industry have multiple channels for marketing. Duck eggs may either be sold fresh or processed. Processed eggs include:balut, penoy, salted duck eggs, and century eggs.
Producers may sell fresh duck eggs to middlemen or viajeros to retailers. Retailers include wet market traders, sari-sari store owners who sell eggs by piece.
The demand for fresh duck eggs is also met by supermarkets and groceries where fresh duck eggs are sold by the dozen or half-dozen cartons. However, duck eggs may also be sold directly to the retailer from the farm.
Sorting is one of the most important keys to good marketing of duck eggs.
Eggs must be properly sorted before being sold from the farm to gain trust from clients. Eggs that are cracked, twin-yolked, off-sized, or thin-shelled may be sold to the table egg market through traders to retailers. Otherwise, eggs are sold through traders to balutans or balut operators. Balut operators then sell balut and penoy through traders to retailers and day-old ducklings to egg-producers.
The balutans produce four types of processed eggs: balut, penoy, century eggs, and salted eggs.
The demand for processed duck eggs remains year-round, however it peaks in certain months for certain products. Balut and penoy have a high demand level from October to January.
Demand level for salted eggs have been noted to increase in April. Eggs must be date marked to ensure that they are consumed before their use-by-date.
Balut and penoy are classified through their incubation period and embryo content. Balut mamatong are usually fertile eggs incubated for 14 to 16 days with a smaller embryo. Balut sa puti are fertile eggs incubated for 17 to 18 days with a larger embryo. Penoy sa sariwa are infertile eggs with no embryo, while penoy sa balut are eggs with dead embryo.
Costs must be taken into great consideration before getting into the duck industry. Duck farming costs include housing and brooder facilities and equipment, land allocation, ducklings, feeds and mashes, veterinary vaccines, medication, and supplements, water supply, heat, light and ventilation facilities, labor, and depreciation of facilities.
Return on Investment will come from duck sales for meat consumption, eggs for table consumption, and eggs for processing.
Income can also come from sales of good-condition empty feed bags.
Duck meat and balut now have an increasing demand not only in the rural provinces but especially in the metro area. Duck meat is considered gourmet in the urban market and balut is now readily available in supermarkets and malls through franchise food stores. It is prudent to scout available market and demand in the area before venturing in the duck enterprise.
author: Carmela Abaygar, Marid Digest