Poultry raising is one of the common and practical businesses in our country today. It is a good source of livelihood for family subsistence because it requires less capital investment compared to other domesticated animals. However, the continuous rise in the cost of medicines such as antibiotics affect local broiler producers. This has led a lot of poultry and plant experts to think of alternative sources to solve this problem. Flower herbal plants are one of them.
A researcher/professor of the Ifugao State University shares with us his study on flower herbal plants as an alternative medicine even for broilers.
Let’s get to know some of these plants and their corresponding properties:
Kamantigui (Tin patients trifloral Blanco) an erect succulent, branched herb, which grows one m high or less. Its leaves are glabrous or oblan-ceolate acuminate. Its flowers are usually pink, white, red and purple. Kamantigui are used to cure dysmenorrhea, snake bite, painful inflammation.
Sampaguita (Jasminum sombre Ait) in English is called Arabian jasmine. The national flower of the Philippines, it’s a spreading shrub usually less than two meters in height. The flowers are white, very fragrant and are borne singly or has terminal inflorescence. Its constituents are tannin, fats, silicon, iron, glycosides, calcium oxalate. Essential oil from the flower is similar to jasmine. The sampaguita flower or leaves are known to cure fever, cough, diarrhea and abdominal distention. The flowers are also used as flower tea.
Marigold (Tagetes patula L.) sometimes called amarillo. It is a rather coarse, erect, glabrous branched, smelling annual herb 0.4 to one meter in height. It is used to cure anemia, rheumatic muscular, bone repair, irregular menstruation and abdominal pain during menstrual period.
Damong Maria (Artemusia vulgaris) in local term, is called Arbaaka. It’s an erect perennial herb, hairy, aromatic, often semi woody and has a height of one meter. It is widely cultivated in the Philippines, around the houses, garden and open places. The plant yields a volatile oil consisting of crineol, thujone and aldehyde. It’s fragrant but bitter in taste. Decocotion of fresh leaves and flowering tops, is said to induce menstruation, also for post-partum abdominal cramps. Decoction of boiled leaves, followed by the juice of aloe or other purgative plants are use for intestinal deworm-ing. Leaves are also used for abdominal colic pains, asthma, and dyspepsia.
Coral plant (Jathropa multifida L.) a glabrous shrub two to three inches high. Planted in the Philippines as ornamental for borders and red flowers. The seeds are very powerful cathartic. One seed is said to be enough as emetocathartic. Dried root decoction has been claimed to be a remedy for indigestion, while colic leaves are used for scabies. The latex is applied to wounds and ulcers. Due to its high potency, experts warn that using this plant should be handled with caution.
The study sought to find out the effects of different flower herbals as source of antibiotics on the growth performance of selected broilers. It also sought to find out if flower herbals can be a good source of antibiotics for broiler production. Lastly, it also aims to evaluate the cost and return analysis of the different flower herbal plants as source of antibiotics.
Processing the Flower Herbal Plants
The flower leaves were gathered, washed then boiled for 10 minutes with a ratio of 5 grams leaves in 4 to 5 cups of water. The boiled leaves were cooled and placed in sterilized bottles ready for use as decoction. Vetracin was used as control treatment following the manufacturer’s prescription, while the different decoctions were used as drinking water throughout the study.
Experimental Broiler and Design
Ninety (90) broilers were used in the study. There were five (5) birds per treatment and replicated three (3) times in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with the following treatments: vetracin (control), kamantigui decoction, amarillio decoction, damong maria decoction, sampaguita decoction, and coral plant decoction.
Feeding, Care and Maintenance
The experimental broilers were given ad-libitum feeding. Checking and filling of the feeding troughs were done three times a day. The decoctions of the different flower herbal plants were available to the birds at all times. To ensure proper health and sanitation, cleanliness was practiced at all times.
The Results: Final Weight
The final weight of the birds revealed that birds given with Amarillo decoction obtained the highest mean weight of 7.05 kg., followed by those birds fed with damong maria, coral plant, kamantigui, vetracin (control) and sampaguita decoction with means of 7.00 kg., 6.92 kg., 6.85 kg., and 6.38 respectively. There is no significant difference between treatment means.
The total feed consumption revealed that the birds given with amarillo de-cocotions consumed the highest amount pf feeds with a mean of 13.47 kg. This was followed by those birds given with coral plant, damong maria, kamantigui, sampaguita decoctions and vetracin (control) with mean weights of 13.28 kg., 13.22 kg., 12.65 kg., and 11.81 kg., respectively. Statistically, there was a significant difference found between the different treatment means. However when compared with the control, highly significant difference was found on coral, damong maria and Amarillo decoctions with a significant difference on kamantigue decoction.
The gain in weight of birds in kilograms shows that the same birds given with Amarillo decoctions got the highest gain in weight of 6.82 kg., and sampaguita with 6.18 kg. There was no significant difference found between treatment means when it was compared with the control.
Feed Conversation Ratio
The feed conversation ratio reveals that the birds given with sampaguita decoctions were more efficient in converting the feeds into meat with a mean of 1.81 kg., followed by those birds given with vetracin (control), kamantigui damong maria, Amarillo and coral plant decoctions with their means of 1.83 kg., 1.93 kg., 1.95 kg., 1.98 kg., 1.98kg., respectively. There was a significant difference found between treatment means and the comparison between the different treatments over the control.
The dressing percentage of the birds at the end of the study shows that the birds given with Amarillo decoctions gave the highest percentage of 78.13%. The analysis of variance was found highly significant between treatment means.
Cost and Return Analysis
As to the cost and return analysis of the study, the birds given with Amarillo decoctions garnered the highest net profit of P 433.19, followed by those birds given with damong maria, kamantigui, coral plant, sampaguita and vetracin (control) with net profits of P431.26, P408.35, P404.65, P282.55, and P189.14, respectively.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Based on these findings, Amarillo can be a good source of antibiotics and substitute to commercially manufactured antibiotics for broilers. Further work is still needed to determine the economic feasibility of adopting in a practical farm conditions.
For more information, contact:
Ifugao State University (formerly Ifugao State College of Agriculture and Forestry)
Nayon Lamut, Ifugao
source: Wedy J. Lannaon, Marid Digest, photos from flickr.com, gitaasuncion.blogspot.com, houma.com, stuartxchange.org, just-jan.com