TRAINING OF THE CARABAO
The natural docility and tameness of the carabao contribute to its early learning ability. Training should start as early as 2 to 3 years old. Animals at this age can be trained to become submissive and obedient.
Qualities of the Trainer
- The trainer must have patience but should always show some degree of superiority.
- Gentle and humane. Infliction of pain should be avoided as much as possible.
- The trainer must have the necessary strength and built to carry the job.
- It is advisable that the person who initiates the training on the first day should carry out the job to the end to facilitate familiarity between the animal and the trainer.
1. Before anything else, the carabao must be properly restrained or controlled. This can be achieved by boring a hole through the nasal septum and affixing a driving line to the septum. But cast down the animal or fasten its head securely to a post before boring the hole. Treat the injured septum with disinfectants and fly repellants. Slip a rope through the hole and make a nose plug or knot at one end of the rope. A nose ring could be slipped through the septum hole to hold the driving line.
2. Train the animal on the driving line. The single line training is preferable because of the simplicity with which it is applied. By just pulling which it is applied. By just pulling or jerking the rope to a certain direction, the animal could be made to respond accordingly.
3. In a gradual manner mount the carabao with the yoke. If on the first day the animal shows hesitance to yoking do not force it by inflicting pain. Rather, train the animal and familiarize it with the yoke. Always give time allowances when introducing a lesson.
4. After the carabao gets used to being yoked, train it to pull a cart. Two persons may be needed to do this. Use a breeching for the rope to prevent it from slipping out of the yoke after hitching. When the animal feels the burden of pulling the cart there could be difficulty in hitching it again. To overcome the problem, blindfold the animal before mounting the yoke and hitching the cart. Repeat the process until the animal no longer object to being hitched.
Later as it gets accustomed to the work, train the animal on other essentials twice daily and at progressively longer periods. It is highly recommended to gradually expose the trainee to crowded places, to the noise of the road and the presence of people.
5. Familiarize then the animal with pulling a plow and harrow. Training should be made on soft ground or loose oil. Always have control of the animal movements with the use of a staff and rope.
6. Also, accustom the animal to being ridden.
7. Start the carabao to work in the morning or in the afternoon when it is cool.
Feedlot fattening of the carabao is one of the fastest ways to increase carabeef production. It is simply feeding the animal with locally available feeds but are of good quality and least cost. More so, feedlot fattening becomes especially useful in areas where farm by-products such as sugarcane tops, pineapple pulp, corn fodder, cover crops and the like are abundant available.
In the Philippines at present carabao feedlot fattening has a very limited scope. The majority of the carabao raisers are small farmers whose primary purpose for maintaining 1 to 3 carabaos is for draft. A secondary purpose is to cell them eventually for meat. The term of its service on the farm however, depends on its efficiency as a worker or when there is an exceptional price offered for it.
Both the cattle and carabao are usually fed and fattened on the available crop residues during the season. In certain barrios of Batangas, crop residues and weeds are supplemented with commercial starter mash at a rate of about 1.5 to 2 kilograms a day. Refer to Appendix VI for feedlot fattening rations.
The following are the classes of carabaos fattened for the market:
- Retired work animals on account of old age, and viciousness.
- Feeder stock about 2-1/2 to 3 years of age, home grown or purchased in the market.
- Carabaos below 3 years old but not suited for breeding or work purposes.
Advantages of Feedlot Fattening:
1. Fast turnover of capital. Fattening of carabaos may be attained in the reasonable length of time depending on management and nutrition.
2. The animals are less prone to disease because of limited time spent on the farm.
3. Profitable utilization of farm by-products generally going to waste.
4. Housing of feeder stock does not need a big area. In open lot confinement, the suggested floor space allowance is 4.0 to 4.7 sq. m. per mature feeder, 2.8 to 3.7 sq. m. for yearling and 1.8 to 2.8 sq. m for caracalves.
5. Management is relatively simple. For backyard fattening, the phases of management involve only feeding the fattener with any cheap by-products, forage or some concentrates available. When the animal is ready for marketing or if a lucrative price is offered for it, then the animal is sold. However, management under commercial scale is more intricate. Apart from the regular purchase of feeds and following of the feeding program, other practices involved are buying of stocks, medication and marketing of fattened animals.
Contrasting Disadvantages of Feedlot Fattening:
1. The need for large capital investment. This however holds true only for the commercial scheme of fattening where large amount of money is needed for the periodic purchase of feeds and stocks. Under backyard fattening, when only one or two carabaos are involved, the problem is not usually encountered. In fact, fattening becomes only incidental, that is when work animals are retired from the farm.
2. The need to have skills in buying and selling of stocks. This statement is true when feedlot fattening exists as a true business or in a commercial scale.
3. In the money in carabao feedlot fattening whether it is in a backyard or commercial scale. However, its success depends mainly on three factors:
There is money in carabao feedlot fattening whether it is in a backyard or commercial scale. However, its success depends mainly on three factors.
1. Feeds and feeding. The profit from feedlot fattening greatly depends on the feeds and labor costs to produce a kilogram weight gain. The labor cost may not be very significant in the backyard scale, but for commercial or semi-commercial scale, the length of the fattening period has a profound effect on the cost of production.
2. The feeder stocks should have that inherent capacity to fatten at a much shorter period of time. Retired animals may not compare with the young feeder stocks, but they are feedlot fattened in order to improve the market value.
3. Feedlot facilities. Under backyard conditions, the carabao may just be housed under a nipa shed, however, it should provide the necessary facilities for its protection and comfort. Floor, feeding and watering spaces should always be given important considerations regardless of the scheme (commercial or backyard).
A. In an open shed, the beam of the roofing should at least be 3.05 m high to allow adequate ventilation and cooling.
B. Fencing in an open lot should at least be 1.2 to 1.5 m high and strong enough to hold animals. For backyard raising, the
animals may just be tethered securely to a post or in the field, but must have access to feeds and water.
C. Adequate watering and feeding trough. For caracalves weighing up to 200 kg the top of the feed bunk should be about 46 cm high. For older animals, the height of the feed bunk should be 61 to 76 cm or less. The depth of the bunk should be 25 cm to minimize feed losses and to make feeds readily available. Feeding space for calves should be about 46 cm per head and for older animals, 61 to 76 cm. Provide at least 30 cm of watering space for every 10 heads if the open tank is used.
1. Buy only properly registered animals.
2. When buyinig feeder stock, consider the animal’s potential to gain weight and ability to fatten at the shortest possible time.
3. Bigger animals will have higher dressing percentage (43 to 46% carcass yield) than smaller ones due to differences in the skeletal framework.
4. As feeder stock, fatten carabaos that are approximately 2-1/2 to 3 years old and weighing about 250 to 300 kg.
5. Fatten animals that are free from diseases and parasites. Thin animals are not necessarily unhealthy. Oftentimes they are just underfed especially during summer. Avoid buying animals with bloated bellies as they may be difficult to fatten.
6. Minimize animal shrinkage during transport from the market to the feedlot and vice-versa at market time. Truck beddings and dividers are a must. Animals that are lying down should be made to stand otherwise they will end up as downers.
7. For the newly purchased feeders, unload animals as quietly as possible. Allow the animals to rest and adjust to new surroundings. Water and feed should always be accessible.
8. Examine the health condition of the animal.
9. Group animals according to size, age and sex. Small animals will definitely be at a disadvantage when grouped with bigger ones especially at feeding time. Carabulls will breed caracows in heat; this will interfere with his fattening period. Buyers should not buy pregnant animals for slaughter.
10. Animals that are wild should be handled gently. Avoid undue excitement to prevent stress.
11. Deworm all newly purchased animals.
12. Administer vitamin A preparations every month if economically feasible to facilitate tissue build-up and feed efficiency.
13. Give 15 to 20 kg of fresh palatable forage per animal per day. This amount of feed (dry matter basis) is equivalent to about 2% of the animal’s liveweight. Concentrate ration consisting of copra-molasses-rice bran will constitute a good concentrate feedlot ration. Concentrate is usually given at a rate of about 2 to 3% of the ody weight.
14. Feed the animals at least twice a day rather than give them a whole day’s ration in one feeding. This system minimizes waste and spoilage of feeds and consequently, improves the animal’s efficiency.
15. Keep records. The following items should be properly recorded for efficient feedlot management.
- a. feed costs
- b. daily feed consumption
- c. source of the animals, date of arrival, initial weights and market weights
- d. health condition
- e. labor inputs
16. Sell fattened animals on a weight basis. Survey the livestock market for the prevailing market price and prospective buyers.
17. Plan ahead. Preparation for the next crop should be done before selling the animals in the lot.
MANAGEMENT OF CARABAOS IN THE RANCH
Raising carabaos in the ranch is essentially the same with raising cattle in a similar adaptation. However, the availability of creeks, river or mud hole should be considered because of the inherent nature of the carabao to wallow. Pasture management in particular should also be carefully planned.
Slightly rolling and elevated land site is a requisite for a good ranch.
Requisites of a good ranch site:
1. Location. There should be an extensive space with more area for expansion. It must be easily reached by transportation and near marketing outlets.
2. Topography. Gently rolling and elevated land for good drainage is desirable. Hilly lands of not more than 30 degrees maybe used but steep areas and ravines should be avoided or fenced out.
3. Availability of water. Safe rivers, springs, and creek are highly desirable for drinking and cooling. Carabaos, if not provided with clean running water, usually drink from where they wallow. These animals usually defecate and urinate while wallowing . Presence of trees in the immediate vicinity for shade is important.
4. Soil and vegetation. Soil in the ranch must be capable of growing improved grasses and legumes all year round. The forage crops grown must not only be palatable and nutritious but must be free from toxic substances, drought resistant and capable of withstanding trampling.
Under improved practice, it is recommended that carabaos raised in the ranch be grouped into herds such as caracalves, pregnant herd, breeding herd and fatteners. The practice will overcome the problem of competitive consumption of feed on account of size differences and insufficient space requirement. It also minimizes early calf mortality and facilitate the recording and identification of animals.
Overhead water sprinkles for confined carbaos
1. Cooling facilities. It has been shown that carabaos provided with cooling facilities have improved daily weight gain, milk production and to some extent its breeding performance, especially in the estrus cycle. Cooling facilities maybe provided by means of a safe mudhole or stream. Bathing the animal with water through hose or sprinklers as well as provision for shade trees in the pasture or corral can also provide a cooling effect on the animal.
2. Working corral, squeeze chute and scales. A working corral is a yard used for a closer examination of the animal especially during drafting, weighing, dehorning, castration, drenching, vaccination, A.I. and pregnant testing. The yard should be built in a well drained area and where carabaos can easily be herded in. Other essential fixtures in the carabaos’ yard are the scales and squeeze chute.
The use of a weighing scale is very essential especially where treatment or for determining the animal’s performance. The platform, cage and closing gates should be on the scale. In this way, it is possible to obtain the correct weight of the animal even if it leaning by the cage or pushing back through the gate.
The squeeze chute is very necessary to restrain the animals properly and also to save labor and time in handling them. Preferably, a space of 2 cm is necessary to accommodate a single animal. This comes after the scale, as it is most appropriate to weigh the animals to give it the right dosage of a drench or medicine.
3. Sheds. It must provide comfort and protection to the animals. Shed building should have a north-south orientation so that it allows only enough sunshine in shade to keep it dry and sanitary.
A feeding trough or mineral box built within the shed should be protected from the rain and other elements.
The roofing maybe made out of hay or nipa to give the cooling effect. Hay roofing is made up of a 15cm layer of coarse hay held in place between two layers of woven wire fencing.
4. Fencing. Since proper utilization of pastures calls for sub-dividing the area into paddocks, then fencing these areas is a necessity. The following are requirements and specifications for a secured fencing:
- a. Fencing materials should be strong and durable. The posts maybe of two kinds: the treated and the live post. For treated posts, molave, yakal, guijo and mangkano are good example while for live posts we can use the dapdap, ipil-ipil, kapok and kalumpang.
- b. Posts should be buried at 60 to 76cm below and 1.22 m above ground.
- c. A distance of 4 to 5 m between posts is recommended. If the distance of the posts is more than the recommended length, battens are necessary to keep the wire spacing turgid.
- d. The wire to be used in fencing should have the necessary strength to withstand trampling and charges of the animals. The barbed wire is commonly used in fencing because of its strength and availability. But it is more expensive than using plain wire or gauge number eight or nine. On the other hand, it is recommended to use a combination of the plain and the barbed wire with the plain placed above the barbed wire. A three to four strands of wire would be sufficient to control the animal movement.
Table of Contents
- Introduction, The Breeds
- Reproductive Physiology, Nutrient Requirements
- Care and Management
- Training, Fattening, Ranch Management
- Pasture and Herd Health Management
- Common Infectious Diseases
- Marketing and Financing
- Processing and Utilization
- Carabeef Popular Recipes
- Kesong Puti, Pastillas de Leche
- Skin Preservation, Parts of Body
For more information, contact:
Department of Agriculture
Regional Field Unit No. VII
M. Velez St., Cebu City
The publication of this guide was made possible through the Livestock Division of DA-RFU-VII. May this serve our clientele at its best. – Eduardo B. Lecciones, Jr., Regional Executive Director